Pyelonephritis is a urinary tract infection defined as the presence of germs in the urine. They are usually bacteria (bacterial) and, exceptionally, fungi (fungal) or viruses (viral).
After showing significant bacteria in urine, it is necessary to identify the anatomical location of the infection. It uses clinical symptoms and, if necessary, complementary examinations.
We call cystitis a urinary infection that affects the bladder, defined by a characteristic clinical picture of pain or urination burning. It is very increased and low frequency of urination (frequency), the permanent sensation of urination desire (urgency), and sometimes bloody urine. The table always runs without fever.
If there is a fever, it means that another organ is also affected. In a male, a finger is inserted into the rectum (digital rectal examination) to determine if the affected organ is the prostate. The prostate is touched, and they make the diagnosis. As we can know, this condition is called acute prostatitis.
If the organ is affected to the kidney, the condition is called acute Pyelonephritis. We characterize it by fever, chills, lumbar pain, malaise …, accompanied by significant bacteriuria. Acute Pyelonephritis, well treated, generally heals without sequelae. Still, on certain occasions, especially when there is vesic-renal reflux. The disease runs it and produces inflammatory and scarring lesions that atrophy the kidney, identified radiologically. The condition is called chronic Pyelonephritis.
Symptoms Of Pyelonephritis
There are situations in which predisposition is more important:
The number of infections is higher in diabetic women but not in men. However, when a person with diabetes has an infection, it is usually more aggressive.
Includes an increased risk of lack of symptoms of bacteriuria, which, if left untreated. It can lead to Pyelonephritis in the last trimester. It is necessary to check urine by culture and treat bacteriuria if it occurs.
Infection In Children And Vesic-renal Reflux
In half of the cases, children under two years of age with urinary infection associate vesic-renal reflux. The risk of developing kidney lesions is associated with reflux as the most important factor. It is higher in children under five years of age.
Struvite stones result from infection, and the infection will not go away as long as they do not remove stones.
The most important risk factor is that It allows greater growth and intrarenal penetration of germs and is decisive in kidney destruction.
Most common symptoms of Pyelonephritis:
- Itching and burning urination at there.
- Increased need to urinate.
Who Can Get Pyelonephritis?
It is fundamentally a pathology in females. Only in infants, the ratio of boys/girls is high (1.51). The predominance is female in the rest of the ages.
It is a fact that 4.5% of girls and 0.5% of boys suffer from infection (ratio: 1/10). At school age, the boy/girl ratio we know as 1/30.
Almost fifty percent of the female population suffers from at least one infection in adults. 3-5% suffer from recurrent infections, compared to 0.1% of adult males (ratio: 1/50). Although the disproportion decreases in the elderly (110 in the 60-70 age group), it is equal in hospitalized elderly patients.
What Is The Prognosis For Pyelonephritis?
The most common disease of the urinary system is Urinary tract infection, and the entire organism is after respiratory infections.
In the world, it is estimating the number of urinary infections per year at 150 million. In Spain, it includes 10% of the general practitioner consultations and 40% of the urologist. It is the most common infection in the hospital environment.
How Is Pyelonephritis Diagnosed?
They can diagnosis Pyelonephritis by culturing the urine on appropriate growth media. The culture is required to have significant bacteriuria, a concept that includes all of the following conditions:
- The growth of more than 100,000 ccc. (colony-forming units cubic centimeter) in asymptomatic patient or not.
- The growth of Pyelonephritis is 100 CFU of E. coli in a woman with symptoms.
- The growth of Pyelonephritis is more than 1000 cfu. in asymptomatic males.
- A suprapubic puncture obtains any growth of germs in urine.
- The growth of Pyelonephritis is 100 cfu in a patient with a urinary catheter.
- We notice a special condition of significant bacteriuria in patients. We define asymptomatic-bacteriuria as the growth of more than 100,000 colcc. As we observe, it is in two consecutive cultures in a symptomless patient.
How Is Pyelonephritis Treated?
It is an antibiotic and should be done, if possible, selectively, choosing the best of those to which the germ is sensitive; therefore, urine culture and should did antibiogram.
The treatment application is different depending on the age, location, type of infection, recurrence, etc.
It can carry out different regimens in single doses, three days, or longer treatments of 7-10 days.
Prophylactic treatment consists of administering an antibiotic or sterile at low doses, once daily, for a long time. It has the advantage that during the treatment period, the patient remains disease-free.