Pregnancy is a diabetogenic state that produces a slight elevation of blood sugar if explained in this way.
The gestational state causes hormones in large quantities. One of them is the placental lactogen, which causes a certain resistance to insulin in women. It causes the insulin in the blood not to properly introduce the sugar into the cells, increasing its concentration in the blood.
Patients who have developed gestational diabetes do not have diabetes before pregnancy but produce high blood sugar levels. These patients are at lower risk than those with diabetes before pregnancy but should also monitor and treat.
Gestational diabetes raises the risk of fetal distress, macrosomia, stillbirth, cesarean delivery, and neonatal problems.
What Are The Symptoms Of Gestational Diabetes?
A patient with diabetes notices that she is always very thirsty because she also urinates a lot. Sugar is lost in the urine and generates a lot of urine to eliminate it. They are also often very hungry.
We can derive other manifestations from the complications of diabetes, such as nerve disorders, neuropathy, or a diabetic coma that is a serious complication.
In the long term, when glycaemia is not well controlled, the disease can produce alterations in the smallest blood vessels, the capillaries. Also, it affects the kidney and the retina, which favors the appearance of atherosclerosis and renal disease.
Several symptoms increase the risk of gestational diabetes. It is important to know them to carry out the appropriate controls and avoid complications:
- Family history of diabetes.
- Pregnancy after an age older than 35 years is also a reason.
- History of premature birth with a baby weighing more than 4 kg.
- Spontaneous abortions history.
- Arterial hypertension.
- Overweight or obese before pregnancy.
How This Gestational Diabetes Diagnosed?
If there is gestational diabetes, we can confirm with the O’Sullivan test.
For the diagnosis of possible diabetes induced by pregnancy, one of the external signs is a significant weight gain of the mother between one and another visit to the doctor.
They diagnose if there are two or more elevated data, including fasting. If a woman presents that increase, a screening test will carry out diabetes screening. We call That analysis the O’Sullivan test. It should do it between weeks 24 and 28. They have to conduct a fasting blood glucose curve with 100 g of glucose for three hours if there is any alteration.
Generally, the diabetes of pregnant women is type 1 because they are usually young.
How Is Gestational Diabetes Treated?
To treat gestational diabetes, the essential thing is to adequately control the sugar levels in the mother with diet and light exercise.
Current recommendations establish the need to start pharmacological treatment once the diet and physical exercise program fails to keep the established basal and postprandial glycemia goals.
Another factor that must consider before insulinization is the ultrasound assessment of fetal growth.
- The choice drug is human insulin in a basal-bolus regimen, with one or two doses of NPH insulin, accompanied by preprandial regular insulin if necessary.
- Should not take oral antidiabetics.
- Should monitor Fetal growth and well-being from the 34th week of pregnancy.
- Pre-pregnancy diabetes does not have to worsen after pregnancy.
- Pregnancy-induced diabetes, type A1 and A2, does contain a higher risk of the mother developing type 2 diabetes in the future.
Where Do We Treat It?
We can get treatment from an organized department into care units with dedicated specialists to study and diagnose this disease.
We must follow the protocols that ensure diagnostic tests that they carry out or do in the shortest time possible. They start the most appropriate treatment in each case as soon as possible.
Organized in care units
- Obesity Area.
- Diabetes Unit.
- Thyroid and Parathyroid Diseases Unit.
- Osteoporosis Unit
- Other diseases: e.g., Cushing’s syndrome.