The treatment for brucellosis, like others, takes into account several factors such as current state of health of the organism, medical history, side effects, among other related. In this sense, it is very important that the doctor prescribes the most appropriate set of drugs for the patient, whose dosage is monitored and according to the response that may arise.
Formerly, brucellosis was known as Malta or Mediterranean fever. Brucellosis is one of the diseases, which can be transmitted from animals to humans, most relevant worldwide. This condition has been controlled in developed countries; However, it is estimated that there are 500,000 cases of brucellosis per year in the rest of the world.
David Bruce was the one who identified the Brucella, during his stay on the island of Malta; when he was sent by the British Royal Navy. Guzmán Hernández affirms that this is an amazingly virulent bacterium.
Likewise, Guzmán Hernández states the following: in experimental animals, it has been reported that the minimum infecting dose ranges from 10 to 100 cells, either through aerosols or subcutaneously. Due to its ability to easily form aerosols, it is on the list of bacteria, which can be used in bioterrorism, and because of this, in some countries working with Brucella is restricted.
Forms of contagion
- The bacteria can adhere to the person through contact with infected animals. Especially if it presents wounds.
- In the stables, there is a risk of contagion when removing animal waste since they generate microorganisms in the air.
- Veterinarians are more likely to become infected, as they are responsible for vaccination of infected animals.
- Consumption of non- pasteurized dairy products (particularly those of goat and cattle origin ).
There is the possibility of acquiring the bacteria and the symptoms begin between 1 and 6 weeks later. Below the most common:
- Shaking chills.
- Sweating .
- Muscle pain.
- Lack of appetite.
- Fever up to 40 º.
- Pain in the joints.
- Inflammation in the lymph nodes.
To determine if a person is infected, a series of techniques for isolating the microorganism is carried out, or methods of an immunological nature are applied. Among the tests stand out the following:
- Culture. A culture of the bone marrow is performed, in which a solid phase and a liquid phase are obtained to be analyzed.
- Microscopic examination. An irregular growth observed in the crop is analyzed.
- Subculture and colonial aspect. Obtaining secondary cultures that allow analyzing cell lines in more detail.
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This consists of the in vitro amplification of a DNA fragment.
On the other hand, you can also perform serological tests to identify what antibodies are in the blood and if it is causing such an infection. It can be through:
- Agglutination. The process by which the cells that are in suspension in a liquid are grouped together by reaction of an antigen of which they are carriers with the corresponding antibody.
- Rose of Bengal. It uses as an antigen a bacterial suspension to which the pink Bengal coloring has been added, confronting it with the undiluted serum of the patient. It provides a diagnostic approach in a few minutes with a very high sensitivity and specificity.
- Seroglutination in the tube. This is a modification of seroagglutination in which 0.85% saline solution is used with 0.1M of 2-mercaptoethanol.
- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. With these techniques, we can detect the presence of specific antibodies that we select (IgG, IgM or IgA), with excellent values of sensitivity and specificity.
- Indirect immunofluorescence and complement fixation. This is an immunostaining technique that makes use of antibodies chemically bound to a fluorescent substance to demonstrate the presence of a certain molecule.
Treatment for brucellosis
It should be noted that the treatment for brucellosis consists in the use of a set of antibiotics; that is to say, it is necessary to combine the drugs because one does not have the capacity to completely eradicate the bacterial agents. To date, treatment for brucellosis does not have a single medication to eliminate the infection.
On the other hand, it is necessary to know that the treatment for brucellosis must be maintained for a considerable time to prevent the patient from suffering a relapse. The World Health Organization follows the following:
- A. One dose of Tetracyclines 500 mg tablets. It is suggested to take them two hours before the food with 500 ml of water, every 6 hours for 6 weeks. Combine it with Streptomycin 1 g IM every 24 hours for 21 days. However, patients with hearing or balance problems should take precautions and notify their doctor.
- B. Rifampin 300 mg tablets every 8 hours for 21 days. This medicine decreases the effects of anticoagulants and contraceptives.
- C. Trimethoprim with sulfamethoxazole 320 mg per day, 2 tablets every 12 hours for 21 days. Combined with Doxycycline 200 mg tablets every 24 hours for 6 weeks. It should not be ingested with dairy products.
It is important to mention that in the last five years there have been studies that involve the administration of new antibiotics such as tigecillin, azithromycin or gentamicin encapsulated in liposomes, however more studies are required in relation to these new alternatives for the treatment of brucellosis.