Before effected by lung cancer try to identify its symptoms. Lung cancer arises from the excessive proliferation without control of certain cells lungs causing local problems and space occupation compression nearby structures. In addition, it can spread through lymph nodes and/or blood vessels to other organs (distant metastasis).
There are two main types of tumor: non-small cell carcinoma (85% of cases) and small cell carcinoma or small cell carcinoma of the lung (15% of cases).
According to data from one of the Medical Oncology, lung cancer is the third most common tumor, both in men and women, in addition to being the tumor with the highest mortality overall.
Some figures before which an early diagnosis is essential. Suppose there is no invasion of neighboring structures or distant metastases. In that case, diagnosis is essential to achieve a cure for this cancer in up to 90% of patients.
That has been a pioneer in its Lung Cancer Early Detection Program, led by a team with high experience in quickly and accurately performing a low-dose annual radiation CT scan in the population at risk. Doctors have achieved 85% of diagnoses of early-stage lung cancer and the cure of patients by surgery.
What are the symptoms of lung cancer?
In almost two-thirds of cases, lung cancer does not produce symptoms. The symptoms it causes are very nonspecific (tiredness, loss of fitness, or weight loss) or similar to other benign diseases. Hence, in most cases, its diagnosis occurs in advanced stages.
With the appearance of symptoms and invasion of neighboring pulmonary structures, persistent cough, associated or not with phlegm, you notice local growth of the tumor. It is the most common, occurring in 45-75% of patients.
In addition, hemoptysis or blood in sputum appears, on occasion, in up to 50% of patients with lung cancer. Another symptom is dyspnea, or a sensation of lack of air, usually caused by the occupation of the lung space that prevents the correct entry of air.
On other occasions, the lung cancer symptoms appear due to distant metastases, being more frequent in the lymph nodes, bones, brain, liver, and adrenal glands.
Finally, the so-called paraneoplastic syndromes caused by inappropriate tumor secretion of substances produce a series of symptoms.
How is lung cancer diagnosed?
To arrive at a diagnosis of lung cancer, it is necessary to perform some diagnostic imaging tests, including:
- Medical history with physical examination
- General analytics
- Chest x-ray
- Chest CT
- CT or MRI of the brain
- Respiratory function tests
In addition, in most cases, it is necessary to perform endoscopic studies to take a tissue sample, know the type of tumor to be treated, its prognosis, and the most appropriate treatments.
- Transthoracic puncture
- Ultrasound bronchoscopy (EBUS / EUS)
It has a Lung Cancer Area consisting of a multidisciplinary team of specialists and researchers from the Cima Solid Tumors and Biomarkers Program. A genetic diagnosis unit with a detailed study of each patient’s tumor allows a selection of individualized treatment for each genetic alteration.
How is lung cancer treated?
When the lung cancer is localized, the surgical approach and the curability of the patient are possible in a high percentage of cases.
We must know and understand the possibility of surgery. It is necessary to assess the resectability of the lesion. Also, the patient’s operability and perform respiratory function tests to know if the respiratory reserve that remains after surgery will be sufficient for the patient to breathe.
Existing surgical procedures to consider:
- Lobectomy is a removal of a lobe of the lung. Applicable to patients with adequate respiratory reserve. Minimize the likelihood of a localized recurrence.
- Pneumonectomy means the removal of the entire lung.
- Segmentectomy or wedge resection is the removal of part of a lobe. Patients with decreased respiratory function need this process.
In cases of disseminated disease at diagnosis, surgery can also be a valid therapeutic strategy in selected cases: a limited number of metastatic involvement, control of the primary tumor, and operability of the patient.
Robotic surgery for lung cancer
The robotic surgery involves removing the lung nodule through small incisions through which instruments have inserted the robot. In this process, the surgeon conducts surgery through incisions which is not beyond a centimeter.
It is a minimally invasive surgery. It allows us to perform much less aggressive operations for the patient. It is with more excellent safety with early recovery from ill-health. We notice more minor complications. and greater safety.
The use of the surgical robot allows the precision of great stature. We notice better vision and optimization of the treatment. Eliminate surgeon hand tremors, provide 10x view.
It applies accelerated recovery protocols. It seeks to reduce pain, hospital stay, and the appearance of possible complications associated with surgery—with the interdisciplinary work of specialists, highly trained in the latest available advances. The patient will experience an accelerated recovery. That will allow them to resume their day-to-day with greater ease.
The administration of chemotherapy has several therapeutic variants:
- Adjuvant treatment: after a complete surgery is operated on and cured patients.
- Neoadjuvant treatment: before a possible surgical resection to reduce the size of the tumor.
- Palliative treatment: in the context of disseminated disease.
A histological and/or molecular diagnosis as precise as possible is essential. The type of chemotherapy treatment is the most recommended in this case. Should discuss its benefit in terms of survival and the risk of toxicity individually with the medical and nursing team.
It has a Palliative Medicine Service. This service is a center of excellence providing comprehensive patient care in association with their medical treatment so that their survival and quality of life are maximum. The Medical Oncology recognized it.
Radiation therapy treatment
We can use Radiation therapy as a combination treatment with chemotherapy in:
- Patients with non-operable lung tumors due to their location and/or size.
- The context of patients with operable tumors, not candidates for surgical treatment.
- The context of patients with metastatic disease for the control of symptoms (bone metastases that cause pain, brain involvement that causes seizures, etc.).
It has extensive experience in the administration of external and internal radiation therapy. In addition, at its headquarters in Madrid, it has the most advanced Proton Therapy Unit in Europe. It is the first in a cancer center, with all its healthcare, research support and academic and services of a highly specialized hospital.
Please note that Immunotherapy is a single treatment strategy or associated with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. It constitutes one of the great recent advances in the treatment of lung cancer.
The immunology and Immunotherapy Program forms part of translational research. It has been a pioneer in its development and implementation with a comprehensive program that combines basic. The clinical application of new therapeutic approaches known as the Onco-Hematology Program is necessary.
A further step in its specialization, it has recently created the Cell Therapy Area. It has a technic. These facilities are necessary for the manufacture of all immunotherapy products related to adoptive cell therapy.
Targeted or personalized treatment
Lung cancer is the paradigm of the tumor with personalized treatment. Its correct diagnosis through laboratory technology entails its molecular selection. It makes it possible to offer patients treatment options aimed at the specific alterations found in these analyses.
Thanks to this, they are strategies of maximum benefit and minimum risk of side effects in up to 20% of cases.
It works closely with Diagnostics, where it has the facilities and technology necessary to analyze these biomarkers (predictive and/or diagnostic) that allow individualized treatment of the main tumor types.